# Theory of Flight Syllabus Diploma in Aircraft Maintenance Engineering, Regulation 2010

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(A) Low speed theory

1. Elementary of Theory of Flight

1.1       Atmosphere

1.2       Physical properties of atmosphere

1.3       Pressure of atmosphere

1.3.1    Static pressure

1.3.2    Decrease pressure & density with change in altitude

1.3.3    Pressure altitude and true altitude

1.3.4    Temperature changes

1.3.5    Effects of temperature & pressure on density

1.3.6    Winds & up down currents

1.3.7    Air speed and ground speed

1.4       Chemical composition of atmosphere

1.6       Humidity

1.7       Study of Air

1.7.1    Invisibility of the Atmosphere

1.7.2    Inertial of Air

1.8       International Standar4d Atmosphere

1.8.1    Troposphere

1.8.2    Stratosphere

1.8.3    Ionosphere

1.8.4    Exosphere

1. Study of Fluid Motion

2.1       Mass and Inertia

2.2       Momentum, Force

2.3       Forces in Equilibrium

2.4       Forces not in Equilibrium

2.5       Inertia of Forces

2.6       Acceleration and acceleration due gravity

2.7       Mass, Weight and g

2.8       Units

2.9       Motion on Curved paths

2.10     Centripetal Force and Centrifugal Acceleration

2.11     Centrifugal Force

2.12     Energy and Moment

2.13     Newton’s Laws of Motion

2.13.1  First law of motion

2.13.2  Second law of motion

2.13.3  Third law of motion

2.14     Pressure and Fluid pressure

2.15     Density

2.16     Temperature

2.17     Humidity

2.19     Archimedes Principle

2.20     Behavior of Gases

2.21     Composition and Resolution of Forces, Velocities, etc.

2.22     Triangle, Parallelogram and Polygon of Forces

2.23     Moments, Couples and principles of Moments

2.24     Wind Tunnels

2.25     Wind Tunnel Balances

2.26     Sources of Errors

1. Gas Equations, Bernoulli’s Theorem
2. Basic Aerofoil Theory

4.1       Terms

4.2       Aerofoil

4.2.1    Chord Line, Angle of Attack, Angle of Incidence

4.2.2    Camber, Spean

4.2.3    Shape of Aerofoil – Pressure Distribution Over Aerofoil

4.2.4    Aspect Ratio, Thickness Chord Ratio

4.2.5    Line of Zero Lift

4.2.6    Pressure Plotting & Pressure distribution

4.2.7    Centre of Pressure, up0-wash, down-wash

4.2.8    Stagnation Point

4.2.9    Lift and lift coefficient

4.2.10  Stalling of an aerofoil

4.2.10.1           Stalling speed

4.2.10.2 Lower minimum speed

4.2.11  Lift & Weight

1. Lift

5.1       Definition

5.2       Lift, Pitching Moment of an aerofoil

5.3       Lift and Factors effecting Lift

5.4       Aerofoil Characteristics

5.5       High lift Aerofoil

5.6       Lift Curve

5.7       Stalling Aerofoil

5.8       Lift-Drag Ratio Curve

5.9       Center of Pressure and Moment Coefficient

5.10     Aerodynamic Center

5.11     Shape and Dimensions of aerofoil’s

5.11.1  Effects of aspect Ratio

5.11.2  Mean aerodynamic chord

5.11.3  Aerofoil’s on Biplane

5.11.4  Good Lift/Drag Ratio

5.11.5  High Maximum Value of CI

5.11.6  Low Minimum Drag Coefficient

5.11.7  Small and Stable Movement of Center of Pressure

5.12     Taper and Shape of Wing Tips

5.13     Variable Camber

1. Drag

6.1       Definition

6.2       Resistance Formula

6.3       Thrust and weight

6.4       Force co-efficient

6.5       Venturi Tube

6.6       Drag Curve

6.7       Types of Drag – Form Drag, Induced Drag, Skin Friction Drag, Parasite Drag, Wing Tip Vortices

6.8       Lift Drag Ratio Curve

6.9       Center of Pressure and Moment Coefficient

6.10     Variation of Co-efficient of lift and Drag with angle of attack

6.11     Boundary Layer

6.11.1  General

6.11.2  Types of Boundary Layer

6.11.3  Effects of Adverse Pressure Ratio

6.11.4  Boundary Layer Control System

1. Aircraft Controls

7.1       Primary Controls

7.1.1    Ailerons

7.1.2    Elevators

7.1.3    Rudders

7.2       Other Types of Primary Flight Controls

7.2.1    Tailerons

7.2.2    Elevators

7.2.3    Stabilators

7.3       Auxiliary Flight Controls

7.3.1    Wing flaps

7.3.1.1 Plain flap

7.3.1.2 Split flap

7.3.1.3 Zap flap

7.3.1.4 Fowler flap

7.3.1.5 Slotted flap

(B) 1.   High speed Theory

1.1       Introduction

1.2       High speed stall

1.2.1    Stall and its effect

1.2.2    Spins

1.2.3    Stall warning

1.2.4    Sweep back wing

1.2.4.1 Reduction in Co-efficient of lift

1.2.4.2 Wing tip stalling

1.2.4.3 Excessive stability

1.2.5    Delta wing

1.3       Wing Fences, Spoiler, speed brakes and lift Dumps

1.4       Computerized Flight Management System

1. Stability and Control

2.1       Important Terms

2.1.1    Yawing

2.1.2    Rolling

2.1.3    Side slipping/skidding

2.1.4    Climbing/Descending

2.1.5    Turning/Banking/Flat Turn

2.1.6    Spin

2.2       Stability

2.2.1    Axes of an aircraft

2.2.2    Definition

2.2.3    Flight Conditions

2.2.3.2 Gliding

2.2.3.3 Diving

2.2.3.4 Climbing

2.2.3.5 Static Stability

2.2.3.6 Dynamic stability

2.2.4    Condition of Stability

2.2.4.1 Positive static stability

2.2.4.2 Positive dynamic stability

2.2.4.3 Negative dynamic stability

2.2.4.4 Negative static stability

2.2.5    Types of stability

2.2.5.1 -Longitudinal Stability –stabilizing effect

2.2.5.2 -Lateral stability

– Pendulum stability

– Stability due to large fin area

– Stability due to sweep back

2.2.5.3 Directional stability

2.2.5.4 Neutral Stability

– Neutral Static stability

2.2.5.5 Dutch roll & spiral instability

2.2.5.6 Excessive stability

2.2.5.7 Spin

2.2.5.8 Mach trim

2.2.6    Equilibrium

2.3       Aircraft Control

2.3.1    Control at Low speed

2.3.2    Wash out

2.3.4    Differential Ailerons

2.3.5    Slot –cum-Ailerons

2.3.6    Spoiler & spoiler in Control

2.3.7    Powered control

2.3.8    Wake Turbulence

2.3.8.1 Air blowing type

2.3.8.2 Phantom wing

1. Sound and sound speed

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Compressibility effect

3.3       Terminology

3.3.1    Sound wave

3.3.2    Speed of Sound

3.3.4    Mach Number

3.3.5    Free stream Mach Number

3.3.6    Local Mach Number

3.3.7    Critical Mach Number

3.3.8    Supersonic Flow theory

3.3.9    Flow Speed

3.3.9.1 Subsonic Flow

3.3.9.2 Sonic Flow

3.3.9.3 Transonic Flow

3.3.9.4 Hypersonic Flow

3.3.10  Variation of speed of sound

1. Shock Wave

4.1       Definition

4.2       Shock Wave Formation

4.3       Effects of Shock Wave – Shock Stall

4.4       Shock Drag

4.5       Variation of Speed of Shock Wave

4.6       Types of Shock wave

4.6.1    Normal Shock wave

4.6.2    Oblique Shock Wave

4.6.3    Effect Shock Wave

4.6.4    Shock Wave patterns

4.6.5    Shock wave and pressure Distribution

4.6.6    Sonic Bang

4.7       Raising Critical Mach Number

4.7.1    Sweep Back wing

4.7.2    Vortex Generator

4.7.3    Boundary Layer Fences

4.7.4    Landing Edge Droop

4.7.5    Double Slotted Trailing Edge

1. Supersonic Flow

5.1       Supersonic Shock Pattern

5.2       Mach Angle

5.3       Mach Cone

5.4       Mach Line

5.5       Compressive Flow

5.6       Expansive wave

1. Supersonic Flow Over an Aerofoil
2. Expanding and contacting Duct

iii.        Supersonic Wing Shapes

1. Straight Level Flight

6.1       Introduction

6.2       Four forces

6.3       Condition of equilibrium

6.4       Balancing of four forces

6.5       Tail plane

6.6       Tail-less and tail –first aero planes

6.9       Slab tail plane

1. Gliding

7.1       Introduction

7.2       Gliding angle

7.3       Real and apparent angles of glide

7.4       Effect of weight on gliding

7.5       Endurance on the gliding

1. Flight at Hypersonic speed

Reference book:

1. Air Ministry  AP 3456A – FLYING –  Vol A – The Principles of Flight.
2. MECHNICS OF FLIGHT – A. C. Kermode, 10th Edition
3. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics- John D Anderson Jr.
4. Introduction to Flight –   John D Anderson Jr.
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