• To provide understanding and skill on AC circuits.
• To develop concept on polyphase system.
• To familiarize with the construction and operating principle of transformer.
• To develop understanding on the principles of DC motor.
• To develop knowledge and skill on 3-phase and 1-phase induction motor.
• To develop understanding on the principle of synchronous motor.
Complex algebra application to AC circuits; RLC series and parallel circuits; Polyphase system; Star and delta connection; Transformer; Rotating electrical machines; DC motor; 3-phase induction motor; 1-phase induction motor; Synchronous motor and stepper motor.
1 Apply the Principle of Vector and Vector Quantities.
1.1 Define Vector Quantities.
1.2 Explain the Vector representation of alternating voltage and current.
1.3 Explain the Vector in polar and rectangular form.
1.4 Formulate the relation between Vectors Expressed in rectangular and polar co-ordinate.
1.5 Solve problems related to Vector sum and difference, multiplication and division.
2 Apply the concept of AC series circuit containing resistor, Inductor and Capacitor.
2.1 Draw the circuit containing resistor, Inductor and Capacitor.
2.2 Draw the Vector diagram RLC series circuit.
2.3 Compute the results of RLC series circuit in cartesian form and polar form notation.
2.4 Solve problems of RLC series circuit in rectangular co-ordinate system and polar co-ordinate system.
2.5 Draw the circuit containing resistor, Inductor and Capacitor In parallel.
2.6 Draw the Vector diagram of RLC parallel circuit.
2.7 compute the results of parallel AC circuit in cartesian form and polar form notation.
2.8 Solve problems on parallel Ac circuit in cartesian form and polar form notation.
3 Understand the application of complex algebra for power calculation.
3.1 Calculate power employing complex form.
3.2 Calculate VAR employing complex form.
3.3 Describe the conjugate method of calculating real power.
3.4 Describe the conjugate method of calculating reactive power.
4 Understand the concept of poly-phase system.
4.1 State the term poly-phase system.
4.2 List the advantages of poly-phase system over single phase system.
4.3 State the generation of poly-phase emf.
4.4 Sketch the phase voltage wave diagram.
4.5 Identify the phase sequence of poly-phase system.
4.6 State the effects of reverse phase sequence.
4.7 Explain the methods of checking phase sequence.
4.8 Sketch the phase sequence diagram of 3-phase voltage.
5 Apply the concept of polyphase for interconnection.
5.1 Write down possible ways of interconnection of three phase system.
5.2 Draw the circuit diagram of star connected 3-phase, 3-wire system.
5.3 List the application of 3-phase, 3-wire, star connected system.
5.4 Sketch 3-phase, 4-wire, star connection system.
5.5 List application of 3-phase, 4-wire star connection system.
5.6 Draw the vector diagram of 3-phase, 4-wire, star connection system.
5.7 Interpret the relation between line and phase voltage and current in a balanced 3-phase, 3-wire, star connection system.
5.8 Simplify the relation between line and phase voltage and current in a balanced 3-phase, 4-wire star connection system.
6 Understand the function of 3-phase star connection system.
6.1 Define Balance and Unbalance System
6.2 Identify neutral wire in a 3-phase star connection system.
6.3 Evaluate the current in the neutral wire in an unbalanced 3-phase, 4-wire, star connected system.
6.4 Draw the phasor diagram of 3-phase, 4-wire star connected system.
6.5 Discuss the formula IL = IP and VL = Vp
6.6 Calculate volt-ampere, power and power factor in a balanced 3-phase, 4-wire star connected system.
6.7 Solve problems on star connected (balanced and unbalanced) power system.
7 Understand the features of 3-phase delta connection system.
7.1 Draw the circuit diagram of a 3-phase delta connected system.
7.2 Draw the phasor diagram of delta connected system.
7.3 Express the deduction of the formula VL = VP and IL = IP for connected system.
7.4 Simplify the relation between line and phase current & voltage in a balanced delta connected system.
7.5 Calculate the volt-ampere, power and power factor in a balanced 3-phase, delta connected system.
7.6 Solve problems on delta connected balanced system.
7.7 Compare the advantages of star connected system with those of delta connected system.
8 Understand the principle of operation of transformer.
8.1 Define transformer.
8.2 Explain the working principle of transformer.
8.3 Explain the emf equation of a transformer.
8.4 Explain no load operation of transformer.
8.5 Explain operation of transformer at load condition.
8.6 Solve problems related.
9 Understand the constructional features of transformer.
9.1 Describe the constructional features of transformer.
9.2 Identify different types of transformer.
9.3 List the uses of transformer.
9.4 Explain transformation ratio (voltage, current and turns).
9.5 Solve problems on transformation ratio.
10 Understand the concept of losses, efficiency and voltage regulation of transformer.
10.1 Explain different losses in transformer.
10.2 Explain the factors affecting core loss and copper loss.
10.3 Explain the equation for maximum efficiency.
10.4 Explain the open circuit test and short circuit test of a transfoer.
10.5 Solve problems on efficiency and maximum efficiency.
10.6 Explain the equation for voltage regulation of transformer.
10.7 Solve problems on voltage regulation of transformer.
11 Understand the principle of DC motor.
11.1 Explain the working principle of DC motor.
11.2 Explain generator action of motor.
11.3 Explain the term torque, running torque and break down torque.
11.4 Explain the torque equation of motor.
11.5 Describe the constructional features of DC motor.
11.6 Explain the function of commutator.
12 Understand the characteristics of DC motor.
12.1 Identify different types of DC motor.
12.2 Explain the performance characteristics of different types of DC motor.
12.3 Describe starting methods of DC motor.
12.4 Describe speed control of DC motor.
13 Understand the principle of induction motor.
13.1 Explain the general principle of induction motor.
13.2 Distinguish between the principles of induction motor and conduction motor.
13.3 Define sleep and sleep speed.
13.4 Identify the types of induction motor.
13.5 List the uses of induction motor.
THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
14 Understand the working principle of 3-phase induction motor.
14.1 Explain the construction of 3-phase induction motor.
14.2 Explain the construction of a 3 phase squirrel case induction motor.
14.3 Explain the construction of a 3 phase wound rotor induction motor.
14.4 State the production of rotating magnetic field in a 3-phase induction motor.
14.5 Describe the methods of starting 3-phase induction motor.
14.6 State the principles of speed control of 3-phase induction motor.
SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
15 Understand the working principle of 1-phase induction motor.
15.1 Explain working principle of 1-phase induction motor.
15.2 Explain the self starting method of single phase motor.
15.3 Describe the principles of operation of standard split phase motor.
15.4 Describe the principles of operation of capacitor motor.
15.5 Describe the principles of operation of shaded pole motor and repulsion motor.
15.6 Identify hysteresis motor, universal motor, reluctance motor and AC series motor.
15.7 Mention the methods of speed control of single phase induction motor.
16 Understand the working principle of synchronous motor and Stepper motor.
16.1 Explain the principle of operation of synchronous motor.
16.2 Describe the constructional features of synchronous motor.
16.3 Describe the starting methods of synchronous motor.
16.4 Explain the working principle of stepper motor.
16.5 List the different types of stepper motor.
16.6 Describe construction of different stepper motors.
1 Determine the value of resistance, inductance & capacitance and draw vector diagram of RLC series circuit.
1.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for RLC series circuit.
1.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
1.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
1.4 Check all connection points before energizing the circuit.
1.5 Record the readings from the meter connecting power supply to the circuit.
1.6 Find the values of resistance, inductance, capacitance and phase angle from the relevant data.
1.7 Verify the impressed voltage is equal to the vector sum of voltage drops in each parameter.
1.8 Sketch the vector diagram with the help of relevant data as obtained.
2 Determine the values of resistance, inductance, capacitance and draw the vector diagram of RLC parallel circuit.
2.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for RLC parallel circuit.
2.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
2.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
2.4 Check all connection points before energize the circuit.
2.5 Record the readings from the meter connecting power supply to the circuit.
2.6 Find the value of resistance, inductance, capacitance and phase angle from the relevant data.
2.7 Verify the line current is equal to the vector sum of branch currents.
2.8 Sketch the vector diagram with the relevant data as obtained.
3 Demonstrate poly-phase power system and identify phase sequence.
3.1 Sketch the circuit diagram of a poly-phase power system showing phase sequence.
3.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
3.3 Study and connect the poly-phase system.
3.4 Observe the voltages by voltmeter.
3.5 Observe the phase voltages by oscilloscope.
3.6 Compute phase sequence.
4 Measure line and phase voltage & current in a 3-phase star connected inductive load.
4.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for 3-phase star connected load.
4.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
4.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram
4.4 Check all connection points before connecting power supply.
4.5 Record the readings of instruments.
4.6 Compare the recorded values with calculated values.
4.7 Note down the observations remarks.
5 Measure line and phase current & voltage in 3-phase delta connected inductive load.
5.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for 3-phase delta connected load.
5.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
5.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
5.4 Check all connection points before connecting power supply.
5.5 Record the readings of the instruments.
5.6 Compare the recorded values with calculated values.
5.7 Note down the observations.
6 Measure current, voltage and power in a balanced 3-phase star connected inductive load and construction of vector diagram.
6.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for measuring power by 3 watt meters of a 3-phase system.
6.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
6.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
6.4 Check all connection points and equipment & instruments before actual operation.
6.5 Record the readings from the meters in the circuit.
6.6 Calculate the power from the formula
Pt = W1 + W2 + W3 and 3VpIp Cos
6.7 Draw the vector diagram using relevant data as obtained.
6.8 Note down the observations.
7 Measure current, voltage and power in a balanced 3-phase delta connected inductive load and construction of vector diagram.
7.1 Draw the circuit diagram for measuring power by 3-watt meter method of 3-phase delta connected load.
7.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
7.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
7.4 Check all connections, equipment and instruments before actual operation.
7.5 Record the reading from the meters used in the circuit.
7.6 Calculate the power from the formula
Pt = W1 + W2 + W3 and Pt = VILLLI Cos
7.7 Draw the vector diagram using obtained data.
7.8 Note down the observations.
8 Find the transformation ratio of a transformer.
8.1 Develop a circuit to perform the experiment.
8.2 Select required equipment and materials.
8.3 Connect the components according to the circuit diagram.
8.4 Check the connections.
8.5 Record the primary (EP) and secondary (ES) voltages.
8.6 Calculate the transformation ratio using the relation
ESEP = NSNP = K
8.7 Note down the observations.
9 Perform open circuit test of a single phase transformer.
9.1 Select the circuit diagram for the experiment.
9.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials.
9.3 Connect all the equipment according to the circuit diagram.
9.4 Connect the low side to its rated voltage to the power supply keeping high side open.
9.5 Record instrument readings.
9.6 Calculate required data.
9.7 Draw no load vector diagram with the data obtained.
9.8 Note down the observations.
10 Perform short circuit test of a single phase transformer.
10.1 Select the required circuit diagram for the experiment.
10.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials.
10.3 Connect the equipment according to the circuit diagram.
10.4 Energize the circuit by applying reduced voltage.
10.5 Record copper loss and calculate Re , Xe and Ze.
10.6 Note down the observations.
11 Construct load versus speed characteristic curve of DC shunt motor.
11.1 Draw the required circuit diagram for the experiment.
11.2 Select the instrument and materials required.
11.3 Connect all the instrument’s according to diagram.
11.4 Take the necessary data from the connected instruments.
11.5 Draw the required curve.
11.6 Note down the observations.
12 Study the components/parts of a 3-phase induction motor.
12.1 Prepare a list of the parts of a 3-phase induction motor.
12.2 Dismantle the components/parts of the motor.
12.3 Develop sketches of each part.
12.4 Sketch the developed diagram of the windings of the motor.
12.5 Assemble the dismantled parts.
12.6 Note down the observations.
13 Operate a 3-phase induction motor.
13.1 Sketch the circuit diagram.
13.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials.
13.3 Connect starter with motor.
13.4 Connect power supply to the circuit.
13.5 Observe the operation.
13.6 Measure the speed of the rotor.
13.7 Note down the observations.
14 Start a 1-phase capacitor type motor/ceiling fan with regulator.
14.1 Select the equipment and tools required for the experiment.
14.2 Sketch a working diagram.
14.3 Identify the two sets of coils.
14.4 Connect the capacitor with the proper set of coil.
14.5 Connect power supply to the fan motor.
14.6 Test the rotation of the motor opposite direction by changing the capacitor connection.
14.7 Note down the observations.
15 Operate a synchronous motor by changing field excitation.
15.1 Select required equipment, tools, machine and materials.
15.2 Sketch the circuit diagram.
15.3 Connect the instrument according to the diagram.
15.4 Check the circuit.
15.5 Change the field excitation.
15.6 Record armature and field current.
15.7 Draw the ‘V’ curve.
15.8 Note down the observations.
1. Electrical Technology B. L. Theraja
2. Electrical Machine Siskind
6641 COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM T P C
2 6 4
• To be able to develop the skill and attitude to direct, control and manage of computer using operating system
• To be able to install the Windows Operating system
• To be able to install the LINUX Operating system
• To be able to develop skills to configure Windows Operating System.
• To be able to develop skills to configure and customize LINUX Operating
Basic concepts of operating system; Process Management; CPU Scheduling, Deadlocks; I/O systems; Memory management; File system and Linux fundamentals; windows commands; Linux commands and utilities.
BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPERATING SYSTEM
1 Understand the general features of operating system.
1.1 Define operating system, kernel and monitor program
1.2 Describe the functions of Operating system.
1.3 Describe the evolution (history) of operating system.
1.4 State the terms-Batch Processing systems, Multiprogramming systems, Multitasking systems, Time Sharing systems, Multiprocessing systems, distributed systems, Clustered systems, Real Time systems.
1.5 Describe the uses of job control language for operating system.
1.6 Describe the process of spooling.
1.7 Mention the important features of DOS, Windows , Unix and Linux.
1.8 Define the terms – Multiuser and GUI.
2 Understand Batch processing , Multiprogramming, Multiprocessing and Time sharing system
2.1 Describe batch processing system.
2.2 Describe Multiprogramming system.
2.3 Describe the basic organization of multiprocessing system.
2.4 Describe the advantages and limitations of multiprocessing.
2.5 Describe time sharing system with diagram.
2.6 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of time sharing system.
3 Understand the basics of process management.
3.1 Define Process.
3.2 Describe the process state with diagram.
3.3 Mention the difference between process and program.
3.4 Describe the importance of process control.
3.5 Describe the function of Scheduler and traffic controller.
3.6 Explain the process Scheduling and scheduling queues.
3.7 Explain the race conditions and stalemate.
3.8 Describe the manner in which multiple processor may be used for multiprogramming.
4 Understand the concept of CPU Scheduling.
4.1 Define Scheduling.
4.2 State the types of Scheduling
4.3 Describe the Scheduling criteria.
4.4 State the terms CPU and I/O burst cycle, CPU Scheduler, Dispatcher.
4.5 Describe Scheduling Algorithms.(FCFS – First come first serve , SJF – Shortest job first , RR- Round Robin, Priority)
5 Understand the concepts of deadlock.
5.1 Define Deadlock, Preempt able and Non-Preempt table resources.
5.2 Mention the Necessary conditions of Deadlocks.
5.3 Describe the Deadlock Prevention.
5.4 Explain the Deadlock avoidance and their algorithm.
5.5 Describe the Deadlock detection algorithm
5.6 Explain the way of recovery from Deadlock.
6 Understand the I/O system concepts.
6.1 State the Characteristics and principle of I/O hardware.
6.2 Describe the role of Operating system in I/O operation.
6.3 Describe the I/O aspects of Operating System.
6.4 Describe the goals of I/O software.
6.5 Describe the function of each layer of I/O system.
7 Understand the technique of memory management.
7.1 Mention the function of memory management.
7.2 Describe the Single / Multiple partition scheme.
7.3 Explain fixed memory partition with separate / single input queue.
7.4 Explain the external and internal fragmentation.
7.5 Describe relocatable and dynamically relocatable partitioned allocation.
7.6 Describe Swapping.
7.7 Describe the segmented allocation and segmented page.
7.8 Describe the concept of virtual memory and demand paging.
8 Understand the file system fundamentals.
8.1 Mention the concept and attributes of file.
8.2 Describe the basic file operation.
8.3 State the terms : the file pointer, file open count, disk location of file.
8.4 Mention the file types with common features.
8.5 Define file system.
8.6 Describe the organization of file system.
8.7 Describe the features of general file system.
8.8 Describe the free space management of disk space.
8.9 Describe the allocation methods of disk space.
9 Understand the feature of Linux Operating system
9.1 State the background and importance of Linux.
9.2 Describe the features of Linux Kernel.
9.3 State the advantages of Linux Operating system.
9.4 State the features of GNOME and KDE desktop
9.5 Define Shell
9.6 Mention the name of different shell for different user.
9.7 State the function of Linux Shell.
1 Perform the task to install Linux operating system.
1.1 Arrange the necessary hardware for installing linux network operating
1.2 Insert the First CD in the CD ROM Drive.
1.3 Start the boot procedure.
1.4 Check the installation media.
1.5 Choose a Language
1.6 Choose a Keyboard.
1.7 Select monitor Configuration
1.8 Choose install type
1.9 Choose Partitioning strategy
1.10 Choose Partitioning options
1.11 Configure boot loader.
1.12 Configure advance boot loader
1.13 Configure networking
1.14 Choose firewall configuration.
1.15 Choose additional language support.
1.16 Choose a time zone.
1.17 Set root password.
1.18 Select packages.
1.19 Configure the monitor.
1.20 Finish installation.
2. Perform the task to Make partition to a Hard disk with disk Druid.
2.1 Delete the partition in disk druid.
2.2 Add a partitions in disk druid.
2.3 Edit a partitions in disk druid.
2.4 Write a reports.
3. Perform the task to Make partition to a Hard disk with fdisk .
3.1 Use fdisk command to list all partition,to see each partition is being used
and to change the partition.
3.2 Delete the partition.
3.3 Create partitions.
3.4 Change the partition type.
3.5 Display the partition table and exit.
3.6 Write a reports.
4. Perform the task to Use the FIPS utility.
4.1 Check windows /DOS partition.
4.2 Create a bootable FIPS Floppy.
4.3 Defragment the Harddisk.
4.4 Reboot(FIPS boot disk) and test.
4.5 Run FIPS
4.6 Reboot(FIPS boot disk) and test.
4.7 Restart the computer.
4.8 Write a reports.
5. Perform the task to Use GRUD boot loader.
5.1 Boot the computer with GRUD.
5.2 Change or Add boot options(Temporarily or Permanently).
5.3 Add a new GRUD boot image.
5.4 Write a reports
6. Perform the task to Use LILO boot loader.
6.1 Boot the computer with LILO.
6.2 Use the LILO .
6.3 Set the /etc /lilo.conf.file.
6.4 Change the boot loader.
6.5 Write a report.
7. Perform the task to work with Linux Desktop.
7.1 Log on into the Linux.
7.2 Familiar with the Desktop.
7.2.1 Check the home folder.
7.2.2 Change the preferences.
7.2.3 Configure the panel/destop.
7.3 Use the GNOME desktop.
7.4 Use the Metacity window manager
7.5 Use the GNOME Panel
7.6 Use Red Hat menu
7.7 Add apllet,application launcher and drawer.
7.8 Change panel properties.
7.9 Choose and use KDE desktop.
7.10 Write a report.
8. Perform the task to manage files with the conqueror file manager.
8.1 Open a file.
8.2 Choose an application.
8.3 Delete,copy, paste,move and link files.
8.4 View quick file information,hidden files,file system tree.
8.5 Display the system users with who.
8.6 Change icon size
8.7 Search for fliles
8.8 Create new file and folders.
8.9 Write a report.
LINUX COMMANDS AND UTILITIES
9 Apply basic linux commands and utilities.
9.1 Use the command options to modify the basic function of linux
9.2 Use two or more linux commands in tandem by using input and output
9.3 Use the parameters with linux commands.
9.4 Select and use the notational shorthand used in linux documentation.
9.5 Use the linux online man pages and help facilities.
9.6 Use the wildcards.
9.7 Check the environmental variables.
9.8 List the processes running on the linux system.
9.9 Kill the processes.
9.10 Write a reports.
10. Work with the linux file system.
10.1 List the type of files and directories.
10.2 Move one directory to another.
10.3 Make a new file and directory.
10.4 Move and copy files.
10.5 Remove the files and directories.
10.6 Use chown and chgrp to change file and directory ownership.
10.7 Use chmod to change the file and directory permissions.
10.8 Use gunjip command to uncompress .gz files compressed by gzip.
10.9 Write a reports.
11. Work with bash (Bourne Again shell).
11.1 Select the most common shells used in linux.
11.2 Enter commands into bash.
11.3 Use wildcards that bash shell supports.
11.4 Use the history command with or without options.
11.5 Use the aliases command.
11.6 Use the input/output redirection command.
11.7 Show the use of pipeline.
11.8 Modify the bash shell.
11.9 Write a report.
12 Use file systems, disks and other derives.
12.1 Mount the floppy disk and CD ROM.
12.2 Make a new file system.
12.3 Unmount the floppy & CD ROM.
12.4 Use tar and gzip.
12.5 Use tar command to backup files in floppy.
12.6 Write a report.
13 Manage the users account.
13.1 Make the root (superuser) suppresser accounts.
13.2 Make the user accounts.
13.3 Add and delete users.
13.4 Delete groups.
13.5 Write a report.
14 Work with text editors.
14.1 Select the text editor in linux.
14.2 Use vi editor to enter & edit text.
14.3 Use emacs to enter & edit text.
14.4 Write a report.
15 Work with the printer in linux.
15.1 Select the printer to support in linux.
15.2 Configure the printer.
15.3 Use the commands lpr, lpq, lprm and lpc for printing documents under
15.4 Write a report.
16 Apply the tools to develop and to debug the C & C++ applications under
16.1 List the GCC options.
16.2 List and use the basic gdb commands.
16.3 Use the sample gdb session.
16.4 List and use the additional C programming tools in linux.
Windows operating system
1. Configuring and Managing Disks :
1.1 Windows Disk Types.
1.2 Creating Partitions on a Basic Disk.
1.3 Formatting Disks.
2. Installing or Upgrading to Windows XP
2.1 Installing Windows XP form a compact Disk.
2.3 Upgrading to windows XP.
2.4 Identifying setup Errors.
3. Configuring the Windows XP Environment.
3.1 Configuring and Managing Hardware.
3.2 Configuring Display Options.
3.3 Configuring System Settings.
3.4 Configuring the Desktop Environment
3.5 Configuring Internet Options.
4. Creating and Managing User Accounts.
4.1 Creating Local user Accounts.
4.2 Configuring Accounts options.
5. Managing Data by Using NTFS
5.1 Compressing Data on an NTFS Partitions.
5.2 Configuring Disk quotas on NTFS Partitions.
5.3 Securing flies by using EFS.
6. Monitoring and Optimizing Performance in Windows XP.
6.1 Using Task Manager to Monitor system recourse.
6.2 Using system monitor to monitor system Performance.
6.3 Optimizing Performance.
7. Implementing Security in Windows XP.
7.1 Security Desktops and services by using security policies.
7.2 Auditing Access to system Resources.
8. Configuring Printing.
8.1 Installing printers on a print server.
8.2 Configuring a Network Printers.
8.3 Configuring internet printing.
9. Configuring Windows XP for Mobile Computing.
9.1 Configuring Hardware for Mobile Computing.
9.2 Configuring power Management option form mobile computing.
9.3 Configuring offline files.
1. Operating System Concepts
By – Silberschatz Galvin, Gagne
Publication- John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte ltd.
2. Operating Systems
By – Achyut S. Godbole
Publication – Tata McGraw-Hill
3. Modern Operating Systems
By – Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Publication – Prentice Hall of India
4. Computer Fundamentals
5. Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 bible
By – Christopher Negus
6. Learning Red Hat Linux
By – Bill Mc Carty
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